NAME
Algorithms::Graphs::TransitiveClosure - Calculate the transitive
closure.
SYNOPSIS
use Algorithms::Graphs::TransitiveClosure qw /floyd_warshall/;
my $graph = [[1, 0, 0, 0], [0, 1, 1, 1], [0, 1, 1, 0], [1, 0, 1, 1]];
floyd_warshall $graph;
print "There is a path from 2 to 0.\n" if $graph -> [2] -> [0];
my $graph2 = {one => {one => 1},
two => {two => 1, three => 1, four => 1},
three => {two => 1, three => 1},
four => {one => 1, four => 1}};
floyd_warshall $graph2;
print "There is a path from three to one.\n" if
$graph2 -> {three} -> {one};
DESCRIPTION
This is an implementation of the well known *Floyd-Warshall* algorithm.
[1,2]
The subroutine "floyd_warshall" takes a directed graph, and calculates
its transitive closure, which will be returned. The given graph is
actually modified, so be sure to pass a copy of the graph to the routine
if you need to keep the original graph.
The subroutine takes graphs in one of the two following formats:
floyd_warshall ARRAYREF
The graph *G = (V, E)* is described with a list of lists, $graph,
representing *V x V*. If there is an edge between vertices $i and $j
(or if "$i == $j"), then "$graph -> [$i] -> [$j] == 1". For all
other pairs "($k, $l)" from *V x V*, "$graph -> [$k] -> [$l] == 0".
The resulting $graph will have "$graph -> [$i] -> [$j] == 1" iff "$i
== $j" or there is a path in *G* from $i to $j, and "$graph -> [$i]
-> [$j] == 0" otherwise.
floyd_warshall HASHREF
The graph *G = (V, E)*, with labeled vertices, is described with a
hash of hashes, $graph, representing *V x V*. If there is an edge
between vertices $label1 and $label2 (or if "$label1 eq $label2"),
then "$graph -> {$label1} -> {$label2} == 1". For all other pairs
"($label3, $label4)" from *V x V*, "$graph -> {$label3} ->
{$label4}" does not exist.
The resulting $graph will have "$graph -> {$label1} -> {$label2} ==
1" iff "$label1 eq $label2" or there is a path in *G* from $label1
to $label2, and "$graph -> {$label1} -> {$label2}" does not exist
otherwise.
EXAMPLES
my $graph = [[1, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 1],
[0, 1, 1, 0],
[1, 0, 1, 1]];
floyd_warshall $graph;
foreach my $row (@$graph) {print "@$row\n"}
1 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
my $graph = {one => {one => 1},
two => {two => 1, three => 1, four => 1},
three => {two => 1, three => 1},
four => {one => 1, three => 1, four => 1}};
floyd_warshall $graph;
foreach my $l1 (qw /one two three four/) {
print "$l1: ";
foreach my $l2 (qw /one two three four/) {
next if $l1 eq $l2;
print "$l2 " if $graph -> {$l1} -> {$l2};
}
print "\n";
}
one:
two: one three four
three: one two four
four: one two three
COMPLEXITY
The running time of the algorithm is cubed in the number of vertices of
the graph. The author of this package is not aware of any faster
algorithms, nor of a proof if this is optimal. Note than in specific
cases, when the graph can be embedded on surfaces of bounded genus, or
in the case of sparse connection matrices, faster algorithms than cubed
in the number of vertices exist.
The space used by this algorithm is at most quadratic in the number of
vertices, which is optimal as the resulting transitive closure can have
a quadratic number of edges. In case when the graph is represented as a
list of lists, the quadratic bound will always be achieved, as the list
of lists already has that size. The hash of hashes however will use
space linear to the size of the resulting transitive closure.
LITERATURE
The Floyd-Warshall algorithm is due to Floyd [2], and based on a theorem
of Warshall [3]. The implemation of this package is based on an
implementation of Floyd-Warshall found in Cormen, Leiserson and Rivest
[1].
REFERENCES
[1] Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson and Ronald L. Rivest:
*Introduction to Algorithms*. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990. ISBN
0-262-03141-8.
[2] Robert W. Floyd: "Algorithm 97 (SHORTEST PATH)". *Communications of
the ACM*, 5(6):345, 1962.
[3] Stephan Warshall: "A theorem on boolean matrices." *Journal of the
ACM*, 9(1):11-12, 1962.
DEVELOPMENT
The current sources of this module are found on github,
.
AUTHOR
Abigail .
COPYRIGHT and LICENSE
Copyright (C) 1998, 2009 by Abigail
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
"Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE
SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.